Tire, Hub & Wheel Maintenance
For information purposes only – please refer to manufacturers guidelines for your specific unit.
The most critical factor in tire maintenance is proper inflation. No tire or tube is completely impervious to loss of air pressure. To avoid the hazards of under inflation,
lost air must be replaced. Running on any tire that does not have the correct inflation pressure is dangerous and will cause tire damage. Failure to maintain correct inflation pressure may result in sudden tire destruction, improper vehicle handling, and may cause rapid and irregular tire wear. Therefore, inflation pressures should be checked as part of regular pre-trip inspections and at regular intervals during long-distance trips.
Any under inflated tire builds up excessive heat that may result in sudden tire destruction. The correct inflation pressures for your tires are a function of many factors including: load, speed, road surface and handling.
Pressure should be checked when tires are cold, before they have been driven over the road. The ideal time to check tire pressures is early morning. Driving, even for a short distance, causes tires to heat up and air pressures to increase.
Never bleed air from hot tires as your tires will then be under inflated. Make sure to check both tires in a dual fitment. Pressures should be the same.
Use accurate tire gauge to check pressures. (Do not use “Tire Billys” to hit tires as an inflation check. This is an unreliable method.)
For optimum tire performance it is usually best to use the tire inflation pressure recommended by the tire manufacturer for the particular axle load. Exceeding this
pressure could result in reduced traction and tread life.
While checking inflation pressures, it is a good time to INSPECT YOUR TIRES. ANY TIME YOU SEE ANY DAMAGE TO YOUR TIRES OR WHEELS/RIMS, CONTACT
PALMER LEASING AND/OR HAVE DAMAGES REPAIRED.
Before driving, inspect your tires, and check your air pressures. If your pressure check indicates that one of your tires has lost pressure of four pounds or more, look for signs of penetrations, valve leakage, or wheel/rim damage that may account for air loss.
Always examine your tires for bulges, cracks, cuts or penetrations. If any such damage is found, a Tire dealer must inspect the tire at once. Use of a damaged tire could result in tire destruction, property damage and personal injury.
CAUTION: Failure to maintain correct inflation pressure may result in sudden tire destruction, improper vehicle handling, and may cause rapid and irregular tire
wear. Therefore, inflation pressures should be checked as part of regular pre-trip inspections and at regular intervals during long-distance trips.
All tires will wear our faster when subjected to high speeds as well as hard cornering, rapid starts, sudden stops and frequent driving on surfaces that are in poor condition. Surfaces with potholes or rocks and other objects can damage tires and cause vehicle misalignment. When you drive on such surfaces, drive on them carefully and slowly, and before driving at normal or highway speeds, examine your tires for any damage, such as cuts or penetrations.
Do not overload
The maximum load that can be put on a truck tire is dependent upon the speed at which the tire will be used. Consult your Tire dealer and this data book for complete
information on the allowable loads for your tires in your application. Tires that are loaded beyond their maximum allowable loads for the particular application will build up
excessive heat that may result in sudden tire destruction, property damage and personal injury.
Do not exceed the gross axle weight ratings for any axle on your vehicle.
Drive at Proper Speeds
The maximum speed at which tires can be operated is indicated in the tire manufacturer’s data book. This speed varies for each type of tire and depends on the
type of application. Consult your Tire dealer for assistance in determining the maximum speed for your application. You should not exceed reasonable speeds indicated by the legal limits and driving conditions.
WHEN DRIVING AT HIGHWAY SPEEDS, CORRECT INFLATION PRESSURE IS ESPECIALLY IMPORTANT. However, at these speeds, even with correct inflation
pressures, a road hazard, for example, is more difficult to avoid and if contact is made, has a greater chance of causing tire damage than at lower speed. Moreover, driving at high speed increases the possibility of an ac- cident as a greater distance is required to bring your vehicle to a safe stop.
CAUTION: Exceeding the maximum speed for which your tire is rated can result in sudden tire destruction, property damage and personal injury.
Tires should be rotated only when necessary. If the tires are wearing evenly, there is no need to rotate. If irregular wear becomes apparent or if the wear rate on the tires is perceptively different (from axle to axle), then the tires should be rotated in such a manner as to alleviate the conditions.
Proper Mounting on Vehicle
When wheel assemblies are mounted on a vehicle, be sure that the valves do not touch the brake drums or any mechanical part of the vehicle. Tires mounted in duals must be matched so that the maximum difference be- tween the diameters of the tires does not exceed 1/4 inch or a circumferential difference of 3/4 inch. Failure to properly match dual tires will result in the tire with the larger diameter carrying a disproportionate share of the load, which can cause sudden tire destruction.
It is also important that sufficient space is provided between dual tires to allow air to flow and cool the tires and to prevent the tires from rubbing against one another.
To make sure dual spacing is correct, simply measure the two tires from center to center of the tread, and refer to the minimum dual spacing required by the tire manufacturer.
CAUTION: Improper tire mixing can be dangerous. On vehicles with four or more wheel positions, radial and non-radial tires should not be mixed in a dual fitment.
Hub Installation & Maintenance
Disc Wheel Mounting Instructions For 6 & 10 Stud Hubs With BALL SEAT Mounted Disc Wheels
Rims must be correctly assembled, using the correct capnuts and must be correctly aligned to assure maximum service life and maximum safety.
- All parts must be clean, free of rust dirt or paint.
- Position the inner wheel over the studs being careful not to damage the threads.
- Install inner capnuts and tighten to 50 FT. LBS. in the sequence shown.
- Then tighten to full torque using the same sequence.
CAUTION: The torque listed is for dry threads with no lubricant. Proper capnut torque is important. Insufficient torque can cause stud breakage and damage. Over torque can over stress the studs and strip the threads.
- Position the outer wheel over the inner capnuts being careful not to damage the threads.
- Install the outer capnuts and tighten to 50 FT. LBS. in the sequence shown in Step 3. Then tighten to full torque using the same sequence.
- After the first 50 to 100 miles of service the capnut torque should be rechecked.
- Loosen the outer capnuts.
- Check the torque of the inner capnuts in the tightening direction.
- Tighten the outer capnuts to 50 FT. LBS. in the sequence shown in Step 4. Then tighten to full torque using the same sequence.
Disc Wheel Mounting Instructions for 8&10 Stud Hubs used with HUB PI- LOTED Disc Wheels.
- All parts must be clean, free of rust, dirt or paint.
- Position the inner wheel over the studs being careful not to damage the threads.
- Position the outer wheel over the studs being careful not to damage the threads.
|Flange Nuts||500 – 550 Ft. Lbs.|
CAUTION: The torque listed is for dry threads with no lubricant. Proper capnut torque is important. Insufficient torque can cause stud breakage and damage.
Over torque can over stress the studs and strip the threads.
- Install the flange nuts and tighten to 50FT.LBS. in the sequence shown.
- After the first 50 to 100 miles of service the capnut torque should be retightened to 500-550 ft. lbs.
- Make sure the surface on the disc wheel, which is contacted by the flange nut is flat.
- Disc wheel mounting surfaces should not have more than 1-1/2 Mil. thickness of paint. Excessive paint thickness can cause loose disc wheels.
Before installing two-piece cone lock capnuts, lubricate the contact surfaces between the cap nut and the washer with an SAE30W oil. This will minimize corrosion between the mat- ing surfaces. Wheel studs on both the right and left side hubs of vehicles utilizing the hub-piloted wheel system have right-hand threads.
Installation Instructions for Dayton Bolt-On Wheels
Before Mounting Tires on Wheels
- Inspect hubs and brake drums for any obstructions, (lock clips, rivets, balancing weights, etc.). Remove or resolve any obstruction that prevents a flush fit between the wheel and axle hub. Inspect to verify that the clearance of all suspension members and fenders is adequate and that the wheel does not interfere with the suspension.
- Occasionally some clearance problems may require the use of a wheel spacer. When using wheel spacers, be certain to select the proper spacer and verify that the spacer is the proper thickness for your needs. Caution– when using oversize tires, the use of a spacer may only serve to transfer the interference from the suspension to the fenders. Inspect to verify that this condition is not present.
- Clean all studs, threads, and mounting surfaces before any installation. Check the stud length to insure the proper fit and tightening of the wheel. Cut off ends of stud if length exceeds 1 1/8 inch. To check for proper fit, place a spacer, if used, on the hub.
- Next, place the wheel on the hub, hand-tighten at least one lug nut, and inspect for the following: Inspect the hand-tightened lug nut (s) to see that the lug does not bottom out before it makes contact with the wheel and that it secures the wheel properly. If the lug does not secure the wheel before it becomes tight, wheel spacers or cutting of studs is probably required.
- Minimum thread engagement must be at least one times the diameter of the stud i.e., the typical thread engagement for a 1⁄2″ X 20 thread would be a minimum of 1⁄2″ of thread. Again, if spacers are used, be certain that the spacer is in place during this inspection.
Follow tire manufacturers rim width recommendations when installing tires. Install air valve stem on tubeless wheels. Use care to insure proper fit and non-leakage.
Tubes must be used on tubetype wheels. Follow tube manufacturers recommendations for proper size and. Use of power operated tire mounting equipment should be avoided in order not to mar or damage wire wheels. Begin tire installation procedure by mounting only one tire and again checking on the vehicle for suspension and fender clearances. Clearances should be checked at front wheels and rear wheels. Do not over-pressurize to seat tire beads. Under no circumstances should 50 P.S.I.G. (40 P.S.I.G. in California) be exceeded.
Mounting of Tire and Wheel To The Vehicle:
Under no circumstances should high-powered impact wrenches be used to secure lug nuts, as this cause wheel damage and can also result in improper lug-nut torque. Do not lubricate the lug nuts or stud threads. Run all lugs up fully before tightening. Tighten all lug nuts using a criss-cross pattern to assure the even distribution of pressure while tightening the lug nuts.
|Lug Nut Size||Torque/FT. LBS.|
Once installed, wheels should rotate freely by hand with no rubbing or interference.